According to TOEBI, both protons and neutrons consist of three plain vanilla electrons. As we know protons and neutrons behave differently if we put them into a magnetic field. In this post we go through some properties and differences between protons and neutrons.
First of all, both particles have approximately the same mass, kg for proton and kg for neutron. Why neutron is a bit heavier than proton if both are constructed by three electrons? What reduces neutron's charge? These two questions might have the same answer.
Let's start from the basics. How three electrons manage to stay together when they normally would repel each other away? Obviously something prevents the expected behaviour and most likely it's the FTE density outside the three electrons, at least it's difficult to invent anything else compatible with TOEBI ideas. It means that the FTE density in between the electrons must be lower than the outer density because if it were higher, the density would prevent the stable system. Just like a nucleus generates high enough FTE density which blocks electrons from crashing into it.
According to previously described mechanism those three electrons experience acceleration outwards their system, but the higher outer FTE density prevents them from escaping the system, hence protons and neutrons are stable. Well, neutrons are stable only in nucleus and also that phenomenon needs an explanation.
What kind of setups those three electrons can possess inside proton or neutron? Based on proton and neutron behaviour in a magnetic field there is two possible setups, either they all have the parallel spinning vector orientations (u-u-u) or one of the electrons has antiparallel spinning vector orientation compared to others (u-u-d). How come? Well, the spinning vectors can't be at random orientations because protons' and neutrons' consistent behaviour in a magnetic field. Ok then, which setup belongs to proton and which one to neutron? Neutrons react in lesser extend to a magnetic field than protons, that's a clue... In TOEBI, the only reasonable mechanism explaining that would be that neutrons have two electrons with parallel spinning vector orientations and one electron with antiparallel spinning vector orientation (u-u-d). Such a setup would reduce neutron's reactivity in a magnetic field (e.g. -factor). One electron works against the other two which leads to the observed reduced charge of neutron.
How do these two different electron spinning vector orientation setups affect proton and neutron mass? What exactly is particle mass? In TOEBI papers I have defined mass as being the cross section of a particle. But that's not the whole truth, also the amount of FTEPs contained around the particle matters, it must matter. If we take a look at for example muon and tau particles, both of them have an underlying electron at their core surrounded by a larger amount of FTEPs than in case of electron, hence muon and tau have the bigger mass than electron. However, those heavier versions of electrons lose their excess FTEPs pretty quickly according to their decay patterns. The bottom line is that the particle mass includes also those FTEPs associated with the particle (spherical object having the boundary where background FTE density equals the lowest FTE density of the particle).
Back to the differences between proton and neutron. Does the electron spinning vector orientation setup of neutron (u-u-d) generate the bigger mass ( = more FTEPs contained) than proton's setup (u-u-u)? If so, why? Observably the electron spinning vector orientation setup of neutron generate bigger mass than of proton's.
The reason for neutron's bigger mass must be related to the larger distances between neutron's inner electrons which is due to lower FTE density in between the electrons compared to proton's. Proton's three electrons have a parallel spinning vector orientation which generates higher inner FTE density than neutron's three electrons (u-u-d). Proton's higher inner FTE density means that the density difference between the inner and outer volume is smaller than of neutron's which leads to the smaller acceleration for those three electrons, hence the smaller distances between proton's electrons.
Neutron's a bit larger volume compared to proton's is due to a bit larger distances between the inner electrons. How much is the difference? Unfortunately I haven't developed TOEBI further enough in order to answer that. Nevertheless, above description is TOEBI's view on proton and neutron.
What makes neutron decay when out of atom nucleus? Why can't neutron and electron create an atom? I think those questions deserve the blog post of their own!
Greetings from Lapland! Conditions for viewing planets and other targets in nightly sky were excellent. Light pollution was minimal and on couple of nights the sky was crystal clear and seeing was great. It was just perfect!