Length of Day

Variations on Earth's length of day (LOD) is most likely the reason for the different measurements of G. You can read more about the variations of LOD from Phys.org article. Anyway, the variation is the magic word!

Let's picture our Earth as an electron... spinning and minding its own business and all the sudden its spinning frequency changes. What would happen in case of electron? Let's say that the spinning frequency increases a tiny fraction, say 1.001 * f_{e}. We already know that due to electron's huge spinning frequency (f_{e} = 8.98755179*10^{16} 1/s) and tiny size changes in the amount of circulating and bound FTEPs happen pretty quickly. In case of spinning frequency increase the amount of FTEPs bound to electron increases, hence electron mass would increase till there exists an equilibrium with the spinning frequency and the amount of bound FTEPs.

Earth's spinning frequency increase would increase also the amount of circulating and Earth bound FTEPs on top of the amount already bound to Earth mass. But due to Earth's size and slow spinning frequency those changes on the amount of FTEPs won't happen that quickly at all. What happens before the equilibrium between spinning frequency and the amount of additional bound FTEPs is achieved?

Increased spinning frequency would mean that outwards FTEP flow (in planet scale) would be greater than inwards FTEP flow. Inwards flow will eventually catch up. Based on Phys.org article that catching up might take as long as couple of months. During that time particles bound to Earth experience a situation where outwards flux consumes FTEPs around them and generate increased pressure on those particles' sides perpendicular to Earth's center of mass which is detected by sensitive G measurements during those months. During those months inwards flux gets stronger and eventually the equilibrium is achieved and G measurements converge towards its mean value.

In case of decreased Earth's spinning frequency things go reverse. There will be a temporary excess of FTEPs surrounding Earth's mass and also the pressure around the sides of particles perpendicular to Earth center of mass is decreased due to decreased Earth's spinning frequency. All this generates the illusion of the increased value for G as described in previous blog post. Again, the equilibrium state between inwards and outwards fluxes will be achieved during the following months and G settles down.

On top of G measurements when Earth's spinning frequency increases or decreases I suggest that measurements should be done also when decrease happens a few months after the previous decrease (no increases in between).

Variations of G

Retired JPL physicist John D Anderson is back! He has, with his colleagues/team, found the linkage between LOD (Length Of Day) and the measured values of gravitational constant G. LOD variations mean variations with the spinning frequency of Earth, ah, my first crush 😉 You better read the whole paper from IOPscience.

The conclusion is that smaller the Earth's spinning frequency greater the value of G. How is that possible? Or I should ask, how is that possible according to TOEBI? Because mainstream physics is pretty clueless about the question. There is no apparent reason why Earth's spinning frequency, caused by Earth originated reason, should affect conventional laboratory measurements of G. By using quantum mechanical based measurements results differ, why? I can't comment on that yet (I need to do my homework on the methods first).

So, let's see what TOEBI can offer... at this point, qualitative. Relevant background information can be found from my previous blog posts (Dark Side - Part I & The Mechanism). Why smaller spinning rate of Earth increases the value of G?  All the involved masses stay the same... first I thought that there would be changes with masses due to the possible changed FTE density caused by the decreased Earth's spinning rate.

Because the smaller Earth's spinning rate the amount of the ejected/deflected surrounding FTEPs is smaller. That indeed might change the FTE density (decrease) throughout Earth (in principle detectable phenomenon) but that's not affecting the G measurements by itself. However, there is another effect due to the decreased FTEP ejection/deflection.

Spinning particles generate a denser local FTE around them which is shown to us as particle mass, greater amount of FTEPs around an elementary particle means a higher mass for it. In special conditions, generated by high energy particle collisions, elementary particle can temporarily hold larger amount of these FTEPs around itself, e.g. muon. Nevertheless, the shape of those local particle FTE "bubbles" without any interacting outside FTEPs would be totally spherical.

Gravitating object most certainly affects the FTE "bubble" shape of a particle, it generates higher FTE density on the particle's side facing it. This is all described in those linked previous blog posts. Those, because of Earth spinning, deflected FTEPs shape those particle FTE "bubbles" too! They might distribute to the gravitational interaction (on the short scale probably not, this requires whole new blog post) but on top that they generate higher FTE density/pressure on the "sides" perpendicular to the gravitating object. Now you probably realize the mechanism how reduced Earth's spinning rate affects the measured G values...

...In case you didn't. Reduced FTE density/pressure (due to reduced Earth's spinning rate) on the particles sides perpendicular to the gravitating object allows larger amount of particle's FTEPs to spread on those sides (for a while! - new blog post is coming on the phenomenon). Now two macro world objects can share more of their FTEPs which causes the higher gravitational interaction between them, hence generate the illusion of the increased value for G.

Published paper opens whole new perspectives for TOEBI development.

Dark Side - Part I

Dark matter has been heavily on the focus now that LHC is starting once again. Matt Strassler is putting up a nice collection of articles about it and how LHC might detect the mysterious matter. So I started to think about how TOEBI handles dark matter and, in future part II, dark energy.

According to TOEBI gravitational interaction is experienced through FTE, you can check up the mechanism from one of my previous post. In this post, I'm going to describe how the mechanism works in a greater scale and hence create the illusion of dark matter. From TOEBI's point of view, there is two separate phenomenon acting, gravitational interaction enhancement between stellar objects due to circular motion (orbiting) and stellar object rotation and in some cases (e.g. bullet clusters), FTE displacement.

Let's start with the gravitational interaction enhancement. When I started with TOEBI I erroneously thought that gravitational interaction is solely based on stellar object's rotation. But I learned that it's not! However, stellar object's rotation can distribute to gravitational interaction, just like two spinning particles interacts with each other. When we are talking about rotating stellar objects the spinning rates are way much smaller. Nevertheless, the size of interacting area of stellar objects (cross section) is way much larger.

The ratio of gravitational enhancement due to rotation and "normal" gravitational interaction between Sun and Earth would be


where G_{Earth}=0.5*f_{Earth}^2\approx 6.7347*10^{-11}, A_{Earth}\approx 1.275*10^{14} and A_{Sun}\approx 1.523*10^{18}. G_{Sun} is omitted due to its insignificancy. Units are omitted on purpose. So what we got? The ratio is approximately 1.65*10^{-23}. We can safely say that the gravitational enhancement effect from stellar object's rotation is minuscule.

How about stellar object orbiting? The effect from orbiting to the object itself is obvious. In steady orbit, gravitational pull generated by the mechanism  (a.k.a. normal gravitational interaction) is in balance with the force generated by the displacement of incoming FTE. Because the trajectory bends constantly, the larger portion of the incoming FTE is directed to the side opposing the orbit's center. Higher the object's velocity and curvature larger portion of the incoming FTE(Ps) go (are deflected) to the "outer" side. In steady orbit, the amount of FTE at the "outer" side matches the FTE density difference generated by the larger gravitating object, e.g. our Sun.

So far so good. But what if we scale up to our solar system level and study the phenomenon described above? For example, we have our Sun and bunch of planets, dwarf (always funny) planets and asteroids... which are orbiting the center of our galaxy. However, Sun rules the mass of our solar system. Now we are approaching the interesting part. The amount of FTE(Ps) deflected by our solar system, or let's just say deflected by our Sun is massive and those FTEPs goes "out" most heavily in a plane. Actually that plane effect explains partially why rotating galaxies (or solar systems) are more or less discs or are forming into that shape. Can you see what's coming...?

Every star near the central bulb on a rotating galaxy distributes on this deflection of FTEPs, larger the orbit's radius higher the star's orbital velocity, hence higher the deflected FTEPs' velocity. Stars in a galaxy arms have even bigger orbital radius and they pass on those previously deflected FTEPs. However, based on observations, dark matter (= FTEPs) doesn't go on without any interactions. At some point, their velocity slows down and areas with higher FTE density emerge, higher the FTEPs' velocity larger the distance FTEPs can travel radially before they start to clump.

Higher FTE density means in practice that the stars on those galaxy arms experience higher gravitational interaction than they should based on purely the visible matter. Described phenomenon is behind the flat velocity curve on those those rotating galaxies.

I'll continue later.

Taming The Rotation

What prevents the large scale proton annihilations in case of two solid blocks of hydrogen? Although a solid block of hydrogen might provide the needed support for keeping those spinning vectors in wanted orientation it also provides an environment which induces the rotation for those enclosed protons a.k.a. proton electrons. Such a rotation phenomenon ruins the chances for the accurate contact between two lattices put together.

What can be done about the rotation? Obviously it must be tamed, but how? This needs further research.

Proton vs. Neutron

According to TOEBI, both protons and neutrons consist of three plain vanilla electrons. As we know protons and neutrons behave differently if we put them into a magnetic field. In this post we go through some properties and differences between protons and neutrons.

First of all, both particles have approximately the same mass, 1.67262178*10^{-27} kg for proton and 1.67492735*10^{-27} kg for neutron. Why neutron is a bit heavier than proton if both are constructed by three electrons? What reduces neutron's charge? These two questions might have the same answer.

Let's start from the basics. How three electrons manage to stay together when they normally would repel each other away? Obviously something prevents the expected behaviour and most likely it's the FTE density outside the three electrons, at least it's difficult to invent anything else compatible with TOEBI ideas. It means that the FTE density in between the electrons must be lower than the outer density because if it were higher, the density would prevent the stable system. Just like a nucleus generates high enough FTE density which blocks electrons from crashing into it.

According to previously described mechanism those three electrons experience acceleration outwards their system, but the higher outer FTE density prevents them from escaping the system, hence protons and neutrons are stable. Well, neutrons are stable only in nucleus and also that phenomenon needs an explanation.

What kind of setups those three electrons can possess inside proton or neutron? Based on proton and neutron behaviour in a magnetic field there is two possible setups, either they all have the parallel spinning vector orientations (u-u-u) or one of the electrons has antiparallel spinning vector orientation compared to others (u-u-d). How come? Well, the spinning vectors can't be at random orientations because protons' and neutrons' consistent behaviour in a magnetic field. Ok then, which setup belongs to proton and which one to neutron? Neutrons react in lesser extend to a magnetic field than protons, that's a clue... In TOEBI, the only reasonable mechanism explaining that would be that neutrons have two electrons with parallel spinning vector orientations and one electron with antiparallel spinning vector orientation (u-u-d). Such a setup would reduce neutron's reactivity in a magnetic field (e.g. g-factor). One electron works against the other two which leads to the observed reduced charge of neutron.

How do these two different electron spinning vector orientation setups affect proton and neutron mass? What exactly is particle mass? In TOEBI papers I have defined mass as being the cross section of a particle. But that's not the whole truth, also the amount of FTEPs contained around the particle matters, it must matter. If we take a look at for example muon and tau particles, both of them have an underlying electron at their core surrounded by a larger amount of FTEPs than in case of electron, hence muon and tau have the bigger mass than electron. However, those heavier versions of electrons lose their excess FTEPs pretty quickly according to their decay patterns. The bottom line is that the particle mass includes also those FTEPs associated with the particle (spherical object having the boundary where background FTE density equals the lowest FTE density of the particle).

Back to the differences between proton and neutron. Does the electron spinning vector orientation setup of neutron (u-u-d) generate the bigger mass ( = more FTEPs contained) than proton's setup (u-u-u)? If so, why? Observably the electron spinning vector orientation setup of neutron generate bigger mass than of proton's.

The reason for neutron's bigger mass must be related to the larger distances between neutron's inner electrons which is due to lower FTE density in between the electrons compared to proton's. Proton's three electrons have a parallel spinning vector orientation which generates higher inner FTE density than neutron's three electrons (u-u-d). Proton's higher inner FTE density means that the density difference between the inner and outer volume is smaller than of neutron's which leads to the smaller acceleration for those three electrons, hence the smaller distances between proton's electrons.

Neutron's a bit larger volume compared to proton's is due to a bit larger distances between the inner electrons. How much is the difference? Unfortunately I haven't developed TOEBI further enough in order to answer that. Nevertheless, above description is TOEBI's view on proton and neutron.

What makes neutron decay when out of atom nucleus? Why can't neutron and electron create an atom? I think those questions deserve the blog post of their own!

Greetings from Lapland! Conditions for viewing planets and other targets in nightly sky were excellent. Light pollution was minimal and on couple of nights the sky was crystal clear and seeing was great. It was just perfect!

FQXi Essay Contest - Spring, 2015

Once again FQXi Community put up an essay contest, this time with theme Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics. I have pondered the issue previously so I decided to participate the contest. My essay, "Mathematics, Physics and Nature" looks at the connection through TOEBI glasses and hopefully it receives constructive and interested feedback from the other contestants. In couple of days my essay will be visible and also you can participate the conversation in FQXi's contest forum.

So, what's my essay all about? As you probably already know, Force Transfer Ether (FTE) plays a huge role in TOEBI. FTE enables particle interactions and its density affects the magnitude of interactions as well as the rate of measured time. I tried to put all the interesting and relevant information regarding FTE into the essay but in reality an accurate explanation and coverage would require a series of books and tons of additional work.

Writing my essay explains partially the recent silence in TOEBI blog and I also recently purchased Celestron Omni XLT 127 telescope... needless to say, fooling around with quality telescope consumes enormous amounts of time. Luckily it's a hobby for whole family!

Status Report

It's about time to make a status report... What's going on? What will happen?

Nothing big is happening. My CERN contact is working but I haven't heard any news so far. We'll see... I haven't got any extra time for TOEBI development. It's hard to make a progress when most of my time goes into other activities. This can't go like this, I need a sponsor (governmental, foundation, private person or private company) who is willing to gamble with my antimatter idea. Positive outcome would guarantee adequate funding for TOEBI development, that's for sure.

I'm going to focus, at least for now, on hunting such a sponsor. General development of TOEBI can wait, I have nothing to win from that activity. All the rest available time goes into developing experiments related to my antimatter idea. So it might be that my activity in TOEBI blog goes down, at least temporarily.

The Mechanism

What makes particles accelerate, either repulsively or attractively, towards gravitating objects or in interactions between charged particles? Even though TOEBI has the law for the acceleration between charged electron based particles I haven't really understood what is the exact mechanism behind the acceleration. Now I understand it and it's actually so simple and beautiful than one can think of.

The simplest scenario is the pure gravitational interaction between a larger mass and particle. FTE density generated by the larger mass gradually gets smaller and smaller according the distance between the center of the larger mass and the particle. There is also this minuscule FTE density difference between the side facing the center of the larger mass and the opposite side of the particle.

How FTE density affects the FTEP dynamics surrounding spinning particles? Higher the density then more difficult it's for particle to suck FTEPs through its spinning vector poles, because surrounding higher FTE density slows down the incoming FTEP flow near the surface of the particle. In case of the gravitating larger mass, the same mechanism is also present, but this time the effect is located on the side facing the larger mass. Particle's spinning vector orientation doesn't matter in this phenomenon.

Obviously now the incoming FTEP flux flows and spreads more freely to everywhere else compared to the side facing the gravitating mass and this mechanism pushes the particle towards the larger mass. The same mechanism applies, but in much greater magnitude, when two charged particles interact (because both particles have the huge spinning frequency f_{e}).

Particles' spinning vector orientations are very relevant because the generated FTEP flux handedness. Two electrons with parallel spinning vectors eject FTEPs between them which causes a huge increase (compared to the gravitating case) in local FTE density next to both electrons on the side facing the other electron. Now the incoming FTEP flux flows much more freely to the other side of the particles.

The same mechanism is also in action when electrons' spinning vectors are antiparallel and particles are pushed away. How come? Antiparallel spinning vectors won't accumulate FTEPs in between the electrons, quite contrary, meaning that the FTE density is actually decreased between the particles (compared to the other side of the particles). So this time the incoming FTEP flux flows much more freely to the side facing the other particle, hence the repulsive force.

Things are going to get even better... I'll continue this post later. Berry and Yop, you should sit down while reading the upcoming text...  just to make sure you guys won't fall on the floor and hurt yourselves.

Here's a picture (I was drawing with my kids and got an idea) describing how spinning electron generates a bubble of FTEPs around itself. I thought one picture would tell more than thousand words...

Click to get larger pic. That arrow pointing upwards is supposed to present particle's spinning vector, not the direction of FTEP flow.


Adhesive Force (Magnets)

Update: Actually ferrite magnets have a lot less iron and unpaired electrons than in the calculation below. That would reduce the calculated force too.

Let's say that we have a large, homogeneous magnetic field in classical sense.
The easiest way to create such a magnetic field is by putting two symmetrical
magnetic poles face each other with a gap between them.


If we look at the setup from TOEBI point of view we realize that electron spinning vectors are parallel on both poles. Obviously, if we want attractive force between the poles those electron spinning vectors have to be parallel according Second law of TOEBI.

Let's say that we have two cylinder shape iron magnets with dimensions r=0.5 cm and h=0.5 cm having their magnetic axis along their height. Based on their volume and iron density we can say that each magnet is made of \approx 3.334*10^{22} iron atoms. So in the ideal case we would have n\approx1.33*10^{23} unpaired electrons per magnet participating in generating the magnetic field.

In theory, we can calculate the force between the two attached magnets by calculating the force (by second law of TOEBI) between their center of masses with given number of unpaired electrons. 

F=n*G_{e}\frac{m_{e}^2}{d^2}\approx 17.88\text{ N}

where d=0.5 cm is the distance between the center of masses. In practice, due to differently orientated magnetic domains and blocking caused by magnet's atoms gained force won't be as high as calculated theoretical value. Generated force could hold \approx1.8 kg object in the air, more realistic amount would be \approx0.18 kg or something like that.

Deceiving Phenomenon

As usually, an incomplete knowledge and view about all the influencing factors involved in any given situation can lead people, and yes, physicists are people too, into the wrong direction. Unfortunately, physics community has travelled into the wrong direction for awfully long time. I'm talking about magnetic fields and free particles interacting with them.

If we have an electron entering a magnetic field it will always (according to TOEBI) change its spinning vector antiparallel to the electrons it encounters during its entrance. Due to the presence of numerous unpaired magnet's electrons which have pretty much the same spinning vector orientations locally the test electron's spinning vector starts rotating on a plane (almost every time to the same direction). Underlying mechanism for the spinning vector rotating is the FTEP flux handedness from numerous magnet's electrons interacting with the test electron's FTEP flux, which also has handedness.

No matter what we'll encounter the same phenomenon. Actually this spinning vector rotation frequency on a plane is measured and it depends on the amount of involved electrons in the magnets (more involved electrons in the magnets means more powerful the generated magnetic field). Spinning vector rotation frequency in a magnetic field is called Larmor frequency by contemporary physics.

Always when we put electrons into a magnetic field they'll behave as described above, I mean almost always. There might be some special ways to inject an electron into a magnetic field so that it actually manage to gain the opposite spinning vector rotation direction, but that's irrelevant at the moment. How about the situation where we manage to trigger a particle pair production (electron-"positron") in a magnetic field? Just like in many everyday particle collision experiments. I mean, in TOEBI world, those two are just two plain vanilla electrons with antiparallel spinning vectors. What contemporary physicists see happening at the event?

They'll see that those two particles behave differently in the magnetic field. What conclusion can be drawn from the observation? Obviously something is different with these two particles, right? Contemporary physicists decided to call that other oddly behaving electron as electron's antiparticle (positron), just like Dirac had predicted. That's a huge mistake if you ask me, albeit very understandable.

The real reason why "positron" behaves differently in that magnetic field is because it was created in it, with its twin electron. It can't change its spinning vector orientation freely as needed in order to behave like a normal electron, the presence of its twin electron prevents it initially, just the amount of time needed to define "positron's" spinning vector rotation direction in that magnetic field. In reality, that "positron" is just plain vanilla electron with the opposite (to its twin electron) spinning vector rotation direction in that magnetic field. No positrons, just plain vanilla electrons.

That was the qualitative description how "positrons" are created and how one phenomenon deceived generations of physicists, every one of them. Can we fix the damage done over the years? In principle yes, in practise no. Even exclusive experiment covering the phenomenon won't change a thing, it probably will be ignored to the point when first antimatter experiment by TOEBI are conducted. You can't argue with those antimatter experiments that's for sure.