# Photon - Particle Generating Waves

Even though this post is a work at progress I decided to publish it. Hopefully I'll manage to fill the gaps in near future.

Photon, a particle or a wave phenomenon? Due to Isaac Newton's influence photons were thought as particles for a long time. On the other hand, phenomena like refraction and diffraction supported the idea of wave, so in 19th century Maxwell and Hertz nailed down the wave paradigm. Current consensus is that photons exhibit both particle and wave properties. But what a photon really is?

So far we know from the work of our predecessors that photon's energy is

where $h$ is Planck constant and $\nu$ is the frequency of the photon. But what are those in physical sense? Frequency is relatively easy to picture in TOEBI-wise, it must be the rotating rate of the underlying spinning particle. Spinning particle (referring at its intrinsic spinning) is free to rotate/spin on any axis and depending on the orientation of the rotation we have different polarizations (linear, circular, elliptical). Photons travel at $c$ hence their emerging electric and magnetic fields have the wave length according to

Why photons travel at $c$? Because they can't go any faster due to the TOEBI fact that the underlying spinning particle spins at rate where its "surface" velocity is $c$ (at its equator). That spinning rate applies also to electrons and "quarks". What does this spinning rate does in case of photons? When photon is created and accelerated it finds the balance where the spinning rate equals its traveling speed. On the other hand, photon frequency gets its value at this point. Photon frequency stores the energy of the created photon and this frequency is used in the future interaction between the created photon and another particle (interaction mechanism is another story).

*** link to gravitational shifting at this point?

What effectively happens at this equilibrium is that incoming FTEPs' drag is compensated by the generated force due to FTE density differences between the side of the particle heading and the opposite side (sort of Bernoulli principle in action). The same mechanism applies with massful particles but with a little twist of mass gaining (relativistic mass).

What happens if the surrounding FTE density of passing by photon changes? Once again photon would find its equilibrium, the spinning rate stays the same hence photon must travel "faster" or "slower" than previously. Those quotes mean that, in reality, photon would still travel at $c$. Atomic clocks (as any timing device) would also accommodate the FTE density changes, higher the density slower the clock would tick and lower the density faster the clock would tick hence the photon velocity would stay the same $c$.

On the other hand, also photon frequency would change. Increasing FTE density would make photon rotate faster as well as decreasing FTE density would make photon rotate slower compared to the initial state FTE density. Same applies if we have a moving light source. It's like running with your toy windmill at hand, hence it won't come as a surprise that a moving light source's light experiences red and blue shifting accordingly.

What is the relationship between those two rotation frequency altering phenomenon? How much higher FTE density must be to have the same effect on the light of our light source compared to case we put it on the move, say 1 m/s?

*** continue (wave phenomena)

*** continue (whatta heck is Planck constant? physical picture)

BTW. Virtual photons are FTEPs (see Aether is Great Hypothesis)

# Aether is Great Hypothesis

One thing puzzling me is why contemporary physicists don't build theories based on aether (or ether). I don't mean by aether only the luminiferous aether, my picture of aether is a much broader concept. One that makes possible all the interactions and explains various physics phenomena all along (i.e. Particle Entanglementrelativity <- a bit outdated paper though). At least I haven't seen any papers about the aether almighty written by real physicists.

Let's view few examples in the light of aether. Naturally we have to speculate because TOEBI doesn't contain the needed derivations at the moment. How about virtual particles? Why not FTEPs? I mean, FTEPs can do the job as well but are more versatile. Like what happens when FTE density goes up? That reminds me of the general relativity where increased mass means that space-time changes so that time slows down compared to lesser mass environment. Or what might happen in TOEBI-land if we put some stuff into relativistic velocities? Those speeding atoms would encounter incoming FTEPs so much that their internal parts, like bound electrons, would once again slow down their movement, hence slow down the tick rate in clocks.

How the four known interactions might play out? Gravitational interaction in TOEBI emerges from the fact that there is a greater FTE density for a particle on the side facing the gravitating large object. It probably means that the circulating FTEPs around a particle flow faster (because they would curve quicker) on that "thicker" side, combined that with the Bernoulli principle causes the gravitational interaction. Electromagnetic phenomena are also explainable by FTE and spinning particles but those require a lot more explaining and opening, I have plans for writing on those in detail in TOEBI 2.0 paper.

Strong nuclear interaction might emerge from the aethereal circumstances where three "quarks" are put together. From TOEBI perspective those quarks are normal electrons which also explains the quark confinement nicely. Three, at very close proximity, spinning electrons generate a very dense local FTE which prevents those electrons from flying away. Surely outside FTE conditions could affect the stability of those nucleus electron configuration, lesser the outside FTE density greater the decay rate of unstable atoms and particles. Good example is neutron which is stable in an atom, where the FTE density is greater. Results from DAMA/LIBRA could also hint that the FTE density changes affect the decay rates. Similar observations related the decay rates are easily found via Google.

What else? You name it and I'm able to explain it based on the aether hypothesis.

(Edit) Naturally one has to mention dark matter and energy, those two get their explanations naturally from aether dynamics. Rotating galaxies get their flat velocity curves due to orbiting (around galaxy center) stellar objects generating FTE waves into the surrounding space. Actually, scientists have also detected wave-like pattern in our galaxy regarding stars' positions in galaxy arms, that emerges easily from constructive wave interference in aether.

Dark energy phenomenon emerges when compressed aether's particles (FTEPs in TOEBI) pushes each other away. Huge volumes between galaxy clusters contain a lots of FTEPs and those FTEPs, pushing each other, are behind dark energy.

# TOEBI 4 Years Old

Wow, that was a slow progress year indeed, at least visibly. I have studied various topics (i.e. electromagnetic, gravitational interaction, QM) more thoroughly and figured out how various phenomena related to studied topics emerge from TOEBI artifacts. Next step is to write those observations and Eureka moments down, needed but more boring part of the job. Few FTE density experiments were done but those went awry (i.e. Reduced FTE Density), despite those failures, new experiments are cooking.

After 4 years my pace for developing TOEBI has gone down considerably, interests change my friend. I have also noticed that the slower pace enables me enjoy more of the journey, taking side roads once in awhile is refreshing. Also achieving the new level/paradigm in physics might come with a hefty price, hence no hurries here. Bottom line, the ultimate reason for the journey is to gain understanding about the deepest mechanisms of Nature, quantum mechanism is just an interface for those mechanisms.

I hope you have had a great summer so far. Keep on rocking!

# Particle Entanglement

Once again I got involved with the conversation about particle entanglement. It was the line from the George Musser's quest blog post (mistreated by the host by the way) which lit up my involvement.

Give me a step-by-step explanation of how particle spins show the observed correlations even though neither has a determinate value in advance of being measured.

Naturally I'll try to explain phenomena through TOEBI point-of-view and there isn't too many options. Only reasonable explanation is that those spinning particles generate a FTEP-based connection from the beginning of entanglement.

FTEPs are ejected at the speed of light hence generating such a connection is possible, even in case of entangled photons. But how i.e. measuring particle spin is able to change the orientation of the other particle via that generated connection? Changing orientation of the measured particle can't influence the other particle faster than $c$ if the mechanism behind entanglement works via eject-FTEPs-receive-FTEPs mechanism, so it must rely on some other mechanism.

What could it be? I can't figure out any other explanation than that the FTEP-based connection between entangled particles is a "solid" connection which forces those particles behave as observed. Measuring particle spin (potentially) changes particle's orientation which twists the solid connection which changes the other particle's orientation, and this happens pretty much instantaneously. How to test about it? Well, we could set up an experiment where we disturb the generated entanglement before making any measurements. Simple way to disturb such a solid FTEP-based connection would be just inserting a thick object between the flying out particles, that should break down the connection, hence no quantum correlations should be observed.

Meanwhile, I'll ponder the inner works of such FTEP-based connection. Have a great Summer!

# Two Way Street

Couple of weeks ago I did realize that I can also go into the opposite direction... opposite to reducing FTE density. How about increasing it? What good comes out of that? Well... something quite extraordinary and unbelievable, anti-gravity, sort of. I have never thought that anti-gravity could be possible in any way, but now I have reconsidered my opinion, it might be possible after all.

It all comes down to the mechanism behind gravitational interaction according to TOEBI. Subtle difference of the FTE density between the sides of particles causes gravitational interaction. Slightly greater FTE density next to side facing a gravitating object generates a smaller pressure towards the particle than on the other side, kind of Bernoulli's principle at work at subatomic level. Spinning particle generated flow of FTEPs is the substance at work in this case. Described process is the mechanism behind gravitational interaction according to TOEBI.

Here comes the fun part... it should be possible to generate higher local FTE density with magnets! Just by doing the reverse what was described in the reduced  FTE experiment. We need a setup where FTEP fluxes have the opposite momentum, that in principle should stall the fluxes and generate higher local FTE density which could be used in this new anti-gravity experiment.

Next step is to put an object on top of scale just under the volume having this higher than normal FTE density. What should happen is a slight decrease with the object's observed mass. Amazingly easy experiment don't you think? There is at least one major obstacle, how to stall the fluxes for real? Yes, opposite FTEP flow momenta help but how to stall the fluxes and increase the local FTE density? Magnet generated FTEP fluxes are too bound to their sources a.k.a to ordered electrons i.e. in solid magnets. If we put two repelling magnets close to each other their FTEP fluxes will have the opposite momenta but this just causes the familiar repulsive phenomenon. What we need is at least two unbound FTEP fluxes having the opposite momentum!

Unfortunately, I haven't found out the setup capable of generating these unbound FTEP fluxes, but I'll keep on searching. From the lessons of Bullet Cluster one can say that those FTEP flows or fluxes don't interact too easily...

# Thoughts on LIGO Gravitational Waves Detection

We are all familiar with the detection of gravitational waves by now. One thing which bothers me a bit is the claim that those waves advance with the speed of light. How is that possible? I mean if those merging objects caused ripples into the space-time those ripples should behave like the other detected "ripples", right?

By other ripples I mean for example detected dark matter observations. Based on TOEBI all of those "ripples" are basically volumes with higher FTE density. Like in case of rotating galaxies, galaxy rotation ejects FTEPs towards the outer areas in those galaxies, phenomenon which manifests itself via galaxy rotation curve. Or like in case of galaxy (cluster) collisions, excess FTEPs have momentum of their own and their separation from the "ordinary" matter during the collision explains the observed gravitational lensing observations.

Therefore, I conclude that the detected merger of two black holes occurred in much closer vicinity than 1.3 billion light years. That's because the velocities of those black holes wasn't near the speed of light. One other thing which I conclude is that due to the "fact" of the velocity of gravitational waves LIGO scientists (or more likely used software) must have discarded a lot of potential gravitational wave detections just because the detections' time gap between Livingston and Hanford has been too large!

One thing which puzzles me about my own description is how those waves exactly behave while advancing in FTE. I mean one would think that the velocities of merging black holes would increase towards the end, hence every subsequent FTEP pulse would travel faster than its predecessor FTEP pulse. That would not work... maybe those FTEP pulses originated from the same source can't pass each other? As usually, more thinking is required.

edit: Indeed, most likely those FTEP pulses won't pass each other!

# Tickling The Dragon's Tail

Update 02/28: By using my magnets and Americium I couldn't detect increased gamma ray production rate. The problem was that I couldn't get my Geiger counter inside the setup hence the experiment's casing (including magnets) absorbed pretty much all of the produced gamma rays leaving me only the background radiation level (~20 microSv/h).

As hindsight, I should have also used alpha radiation detector with Americium because that's the main radiation type coming out of it. So, lessons learned... a) I need a bigger setup capable of holding a radiation meter inside it. b) Either alpha radiation detector or a different radioactive material is needed. I think alpha radiation detector is the easier option.

Nevertheless, I have spent too much time of my time on this project, so I have to have a little break. Anyway, I'll have another try later this spring with proper equipment/material.

Ok, let's start the dance! In between 15. and 29. of February I'm conducting a series of new enhanced experiments on the phenomenon of reduced FTE density. There is a three possible outcomes, negative, expected and over the top.

Negative outcome means that I can't measure increased radioactivity decay rate from my Americium-241 sample. If that's the case, I'm done with TOEBI, seriously. Even though, in deep down, I believe I'm onto something fundamental about Nature. Maybe somebody more capable pulls the rabbit out of TOEBI, so to speak.

Expected outcome means significantly increased radioactivity decay rate. Because TOEBI is living its infancy I can't calculate the exact value for the increase, nevertheless, it should be easily detectable. If that's the case, I'll get busy with writing patent applications and finding collaborators for the further studies and applications.

Over the top means that on top of the increased radioactive decay (mainly from Am->Np) rate I'll manage producing various other decay chains, perhaps all the way down to (never-seen-before) proton decay. What would this outcome mean? I have absolutely no idea.

Let's hope for the best!

# Merry Christmas!

I want to wish you all a merry christmas. Also, I want to thank you for your interest and support during the year. Things went pretty good in toebi-wise, I managed to find two pretty simple experiments which can prove that I'm on the right track. My main goal for the next year is to conduct the reduced FTE density experiment in more rigorous way and I already have few ideas how to enhance it (update (01-05-2016) i.e. by putting magnets inside the frame).

I'm also a bit hesitant about the experiment. If TOEBI is really the TOE then reduced FTE density might the long sought great filter. Under that light, is it really wise or necessary to go for it? However, the phenomenon could be used for so many noble purposes, i.e. getting rid of nuclear waste like Berry mentioned or for energy production, so the pros are making the phenomenon so exciting. All in all, my point is that we are living in extremely exciting times!

# One-Way Speed of Light

Another make it or break it experiment for TOEBI is the following one-way speed of light experiment. Measuring the one-way speed of light won't be as trivial as one might initially think, check out the Wikipedia article for more information.

My claim, based on TOEBI, is that the one-way speed of light won't be the same in all inertial frames and to my surprise the following experiment has never been done.

Let's have a train (our inertial frame) moving with a constant velocity $\vec{v}$. Then we set up two light detectors, say 30 meters apart and mark up the spot X in between the detectors having an equal distance (15 m) to the detectors. At spot X we synchronize two atomic clocks and move them next to the detectors with the same, very slow, pace. Detector and atomic clock pair functions so that when light is detected then atomic clock records the time of the event.

Then we set up our light source on spot X and start making events. According to relativity theories those recorded times should be exactly the same, but according to TOEBI that won't be the case. How come? That's because photons move through FTE, in our case, FTE provided by Earth. Inside FTE, photons move at speed $c$ as expected but the problem obviously arises in our experiment. If the train moves at speed $v$ and photons at speed $c$ then photons will reach the rear detector sooner than the front detector, but Einstein disagrees, without any experimental backup.

Synchronization of the atomic clocks was performed as relativity theories would require in order to keep those clocks synchronized. In reality, it would be sufficient to put all those equipment in their proper places before the train leaves a station. Acceleration of the train won't unsync those clocks even though equivalence principle "dictates" so, once again, no proof exists for unsynchronization in case like this one (a.k.a. acceleration happens perpendicularly to a gravitational field).

# Reduced FTE Density

Finally I managed to get some time for explaining the experiment concerning reduced FTE density. I'll draw few clarifying pictures as soon as possible but now let's focus on the qualitative description.

Due to physical spinning phenomenon an electron inside FTE generates  incoming FTEP vortices towards its spinning axis poles and those incoming FTEPs are ejected away from the electron when those vortices encounter. This is the basic mechanism related to electrons in TOEBI. Basically this means that electrons are capable of redistributing FTEPs around them and we can amplify this phenomenon with magnets.

Only possibility (in TOEBI) which prevents hadrons from decaying must be so much greater outer FTE density than the inner FTE density that it compensates the FTEP momentum received by quarks, otherwise those quarks would fly away from each other. How come outer FTE density is able to bound the quarks receiving constant impulse (in form of FTEPs) from each other?

If we have an electron in an environment where its other side has a smaller FTE density than the other side then what would happen? Obviously electron's outward FTEP flux experiences lesser resistance in the direction of smaller FTE density, meaning also that the outward FTEP flux towards the other direction experiences greater resistance. In practice it means that in the direction of greater resistance ejected FTEPs push electron into the opposite direction more than ejected FTEPs on the other side do. Hence greater outer FTE density is capable of preventing hadrons from decaying.

What will happen to hadrons if we manage to reduce outer FTE density enough? They will decay. Surely before noticing anything special about hadrons we should notice some effects concerning larger atoms and that's the target of the experiment.

So we only need a test material surrounded by a bunch of magnets in a specific pattern in order to generate something measurable, right? Not so fast, we have to take into the consideration few other things, like Earth's movement around Sun, the biggest FTE density distributor to the experiment after Earth. Earth itself can be ignored due to the fact that its FTE moves along us, hence provide a static FTE circumstances for the experiment. Naturally phenomena, like external magnetic fields, on Earth can interfere with the experiment.

Blueprint for the experiment is following. We indeed enclose a test material with magnets in certain pattern... Every magnet pair (pair of magnetic poles facing each other) should be N-S pairs in order to maximize the local FTEP redistribution. Putting up the setup might require few trials and errors before it's stable and here's how it should look alike.

At left there's a test material sitting in the middle of the "magnetic walls" and at right it's fully covered. It doesn't need to be a air tight configuration and surely it leaks magnetic field lines but that's not too damaging. The point is that the volume surrounded by magnets is going to experience a reduced FTE density. How's that happening?

Well, because those unpaired electrons inside the magnets, which are responsible for magnet's properties, do the trick. They "suck" in nearby FTEPs through their spinning axis poles and eject them (mainly) on their spinning plane, in our experiment it means following FTEP flow pattern.

But that's not enough. In order to create reduced FTE density we have to something about the FTE provided by Sun. Earth orbits Sun which is the second greatest FTE provider after Earth. Every atom bound to Earth experiences Sun's FTE(Ps) and because we are orbiting Sun it means that the atoms are constantly receiving "new" FTEPs along our journey around Sun. These new FTEPs go through our magnets and maintain the normal FTE density in our volume. That must be eliminated.

One simple method for eliminating those FTEPs would be a stack of magnets (next to our setup) magnetic field pointing to the direction of Earth's orbital movement. Such a stack receives incoming Sun provided FTEPs and ejects those FTEPs away perpendicularly to the magnetic field. The question goes how big stack of magnets is sufficient?

That I must somehow calculate, at least if we aren't selecting the trial & error approach. I'll try to calculate the exact stack size at some point, at latest when I'm trying out the experiment by myself. Nevertheless, trial & error is an option, I just need more N52 grade magnets.

What would be a suitable test material then? Obviously radioactive substances qualify, measured increase with their radioactive decay rate works as the proof of concept. Americium-241 from smoke detectors is the easiest choice for test material, after positive outcome, some heavy elements as well as hydrogen gas are next to go.

What else interferes with the experiment? Naturally anything capable of redistributing FTEPs effectively can interfere, in most cases this means that we have to make sure that there won't be large amounts of electrons (other than those involved with the experiment) next to our setup. Not used magnets and unnecessary objects (i.e. electronic devices, wires, metals, static electricity sources) should be cleared around the setup.

With above instructions we should achieve (based on TOEBI) increased radioactivity of Americium-241 and if that happens the sky's the limit.