# Electron Spin

Experiments have given rise to the contemporary quantum mechanical concepts like electron spin and electron intrinsic angular momentum. On the other hand, TOEBI tells that electron has its spinning vector, just like any spinning sphere would have. How do these two interpretations come along?

If we have a free electron in a magnetic field how does it behave according to TOEBI? Due to the arranged electrons on the magnetic poles (see Introduction to Theory of Everything by Illusion) our free electron aligns itself so that its spinning vector is perpendicular to the "magnetic" field lines. Such a alignment happens because of the FTEP fluxes ejected by electrons on the magnetic poles interact with the free electron's own FTEP flux. Due to more dense and spatially constrained incoming FTEP fluxes , free electron changes its spinning vector orientation accordingly (a.k.a. perpendicularly). But that's not the whole story.

When free electron is surrounded by these multiple FTEP fluxes coming in from many directions (correction: it should refer at electron's TOEBI defined spinning vector) it also starts to rotate around new axis which is aligned to the "magnetic" field lines. It simply reacts to the emerged FTEP flux (combination of all magnetic pole electron FTEP fluxes) having a certain rotation frequency. Details of this emerged FTEP flux need further research but obviously the frequency is depending on the amount of poles' electrons, hence depending on the strength of a magnetic field.

Now we have a free electron having its spinning vector aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field lines and on top of that, it spins around another axis which is aligned to the magnetic field lines. In this kind of configuration, the FTEP flux ejected by free electron passes a spot (i.e. detector) next to the magnetic field twice per one rotation around the axis aligned to the magnetic field lines. No need for the gyromagnetic ratio...

Free electron in a magnetic field is able to rotate (around the axis aligned to the magnetic field lines) either left (spin up) or right (spin down). This is the point where TOEBI and quantum mechanics shake their hands so to speak.

Above is only qualitative presentation for the mechanism behind quantum mechanics' electron spin concept. Things get more tricky when we have an electron bound to an atom, like in Stern-Gerlach Experiment. But that's something for a new blog post.

I had my one week early summer vacation and I headed to Stockholm with my family. We just browsed through the usual attractions and from my request we visited also Nobel museum in Gamla Stan, kind of small and crowded place I would say. I suggest that one should visit the place absolutely off-season. Here are the mandatory pictures from the museum... with about 1.5 EUR one can buy her own (sweat) Nobel prize and no, I didn't buy one.

The best place for me was the shop at the museum, there was all sorts of tourist stuff but also a bunch of interesting books related to sciences. One member from our traveling party purchased me a book as a souvenir and so I did select Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions!

First of all, the book was kind of hard to read, used language was very elaborate and I lost frequently the thread in a sentence. Nevertheless the message itself was loud and clear, paradigms do change via scientific crisis, albeit extremely slowly on human timescale. Well, no news here... almost! Because physics is currently experiencing a huge crisis. Dark matter and energy as its main issues. Problems with gravitational interaction in theory wise, variations with $G$, flyby anomalies, what are mass and inertia. Wasted years with String theories etc. Also by reading some of the physics blogs one can notice how viciously trained physicists attack on the alternative theories, just as described in Kuhn's book (first printed in 1962), paradigms defend themselves. It's ok to attack an alternative theory if it sucks from a mile's distance but if a theory shows some potential it should be explored a bit more and yes, TOEBI belongs to the later category.

Naturally I believe that the next big paradigm will be TOEBI which is able to include quantum theory, relativity theories and explain dark matter and energy, all the ingredients for the theory of everything. According to Kuhn, I most likely won't enjoy the fruits of TOEBI because a paradigm shift takes so much time, bummer! That might be the case indeed, however, I have an ace in my sleeve... antimatter!

According to TOEBI, one can annihilate particles without at first generating contemporary antiparticles with various contemporary ways. The biggest challenge is to control particles' spinning orientation and keep them at the wanted orientation before putting them together. If that can be done then annihilation through particle-particle interaction will be doable. I have previously presented that with two solid hydrogen blocks one can accomplish a major simultaneous annihilation event. The problem is that a block of solid hydrogen induces an unwanted spinning axis motion (rotation) for the contained protons.

One solution could be the usage of two solid hydrogen monolayers... Anyway, my point is that by succeeding in this annihilation endeavor I might be able to see and enjoy the future TOEBI paradigm. Now I'm "enjoying" a flu picked up from my Stockholm visit... Hot tea and honey, please!

# FTEP Dynamics

Update: You can check out the progress from FTEP Dynamics paper. After the paper is completed it will be inserted as a part into Introduction to Theory of Everything by Illusion.

I do realize, thanks to the site visitors Yop and Berry, that FTEP dynamics is the most important thing in TOEBI. But I haven't touched the topic previously because I have needed more data and experience from the different circumstances where FTEPs play their part. Accumulating all that requires time and patience and I'm also updating Introduction to Theory of Everything by Illusion along this journey. What have I learned so far?

FTEPs carry the main part of particle mass. Underlying particle's cross section and spinning frequency matter but the amount of FTEPs bound to particle constitutes its mass. This means for example that electron can appear as muon if it gains the additional amount of FTEPs around itself. I will write out the mechanism in detail in future versions of the book, this applies also for the following observations.

continue...

# Proof For The Mechanism

I figured out a pretty easy way to prove TOEBI description for particle interactions. You need only a magnetic field, a laser and a decent photodetector. According to TOEBI, the mechanism behind the attractive force between magnetic poles is due to a spinning vector pattern which allows the accumulation of FTEPs on the electron's side facing the other magnetic pole.

Accumulation of FTEPs means an increased FTE density which has its consequences... for example, if we send light into this increased FTE density it would experience "gravitational" blue shifting. Those quotes are used because in reality we are not increasing the mass which normally causes the phenomenon,  but we are increasing the FTE density due to those colliding FTEP fluxes from electrons in each magnetic pole.

The greatest increase of the FTE density happens near the interacting electrons, hence the blue shifting phenomenon should be observable near those electrons (a.k.a. near the surfaces of the poles). How big the blue shifting will be? I can't answer that at the moment because I'm not done with the FTEP dynamics research yet. Picture below describes the experimental setup.

Laser shoots photons with known wavelength into the magnetic field as close as possible to one of the poles. Laser is outside the magnetic field. Photodetector must be put inside the magnetic field so that it can detect the blue shifted light. If the photodetector is put outside the magnetic field the light coming out of the magnetic field experiences red shifting (due to decreased FTE density) and the photodetector measures the initial wavelength coming from the laser.

If one puts up the described experimental setup it would be reasonable to make measurements throughout the whole gap between the poles. Electromagnet would be also nice, one could alter the force between the poles and see how it affects the predicted blue shifting phenomenon. Of course, increasing the force can be done with permanent magnets by decreasing the gap between the poles.

If the predicted blue shifting is detected it supports the TOEBI mechanism behind particle interactions, in this case between electrons.

Update: At least MRS photodiode won't suffer from strong magnetic fields.

# The Great Filter II

I have been talking about the topic previously and unfortunately more the time has passed and more I have studied TOEBI then bleaker our future appears. Gamma ray burst due to the full blown particle destruction chain reaction a.k.a. The Great Filter is about to hit us. It can happen anytime and we can't do anything about it. So now you understand the bleak part of our future.

What do I mean with that we can't do anything about it? Well... we can't stop the scientific progress, can we? I doubt it. How could we? In case of The Great Filter I'm referring at the development of particle physics. Mainstream particle physicists are not stupid, eventually they will realize the same thing than I have realized, you can annihilate particle without producing, through high energy process, its antiparticle. You only have to realize what's behind the particle spin and that's not too big of step from today's knowledge.

Every sensible individual understands what to do, right? Just don't go in there! Just don't! The problem is that mainstream physicists don't know about this potentially devastating risk involved with their experiments. On the other hand, how do one inform and warn about it? It's like talking to a deaf ears... ironic.

Let's imagine that for some miracle reason we manage to stop the scientific progress. Do you think that would concern a secret military research programs or otherwise mentally defected dictators etc from developing antimatter based doomsday devices? That's right... we are about to hit The Great Filter.

And just FYI Elon Musk, you can't escape The Great Filter by habiting Mars, gamma ray burst most likely annihilates nearby planets too. What can I say? At least we shouldn't worry about little things and we should enjoy our lives as much as possible. In case you don't believe in my message that's one way to go, after all, ignorance is bliss.

# Galaxy Rotation Curve - v2.0

You are most likely familiar with the concept of galaxy rotation curve, so I cut to the point. We don't need dark matter to hold up our more or less constant orbital velocities (measured values in line B), we better call it FTEPs from now on...

Centripetal force, which keeps those stars on their orbits, behaves like this

and in this case the force is generated by

What's the problem? Let's see

so we get

We pretty much know how normal matter is distributed around a disk galaxy, and therefore mainstream physics has stumbled on the matter (pun unintended) and hit its head on dark matter.

If you look at the issue from TOEBI POV the answer is (now) obvious! If velocity stays pretty much stable and $G$ won't increase at the same rate as distance then something's gotta give! It's the mass, but not the mass we can observe directly, hence scientists call it as dark matter. Particle mass emerges from particle's surface area (linked to its cross section), spinning frequency and the amount of FTEPs it can bound to itself by those first two ingredients.

Space itself is filled with FTEPs. Around mass concentrations most of these FTEPs are leftovers from the together gathered particles, mass defect in greater scale so to speak. FTEPs themselves clump together pretty weakly if at all, so when orbiting stars deflect FTEPs around the highest velocity FTEPs go towards the outer parts of a galaxy in plane wise manner. Observed wave patterns in galaxy arms might emerge from these millions of FTEP deflection phenomena along the galaxy arms.

At some point, deflected FTEPs starts to build up due to lost momentum, pretty much similarly than in case of some particle interactions described by TOEBI. Nevertheless, the outcome from increased FTE density will be an increased gravitational interaction as described in The Mechanism blog post.

What I now need to do is to calculate how things would emerge for example in our galaxy according to the above description. Before that I have to finish off my current project on FTEP dynamics.

# Length of Day

Variations on Earth's length of day (LOD) is most likely the reason for the different measurements of $G$. You can read more about the variations of LOD from Phys.org article. Anyway, the variation is the magic word!

Let's picture our Earth as an electron... spinning and minding its own business and all the sudden its spinning frequency changes. What would happen in case of electron? Let's say that the spinning frequency increases a tiny fraction, say $1.001 * f_{e}$. We already know that due to electron's huge spinning frequency ($f_{e} = 8.98755179*10^{16}$ 1/s) and tiny size changes in the amount of circulating and bound FTEPs happen pretty quickly. In case of spinning frequency increase the amount of FTEPs bound to electron increases, hence electron mass would increase till there exists an equilibrium with the spinning frequency and the amount of bound FTEPs.

Earth's spinning frequency increase would increase also the amount of circulating and Earth bound FTEPs on top of the amount already bound to Earth mass. But due to Earth's size and slow spinning frequency those changes on the amount of FTEPs won't happen that quickly at all. What happens before the equilibrium between spinning frequency and the amount of additional bound FTEPs is achieved?

Increased spinning frequency would mean that outwards FTEP flow (in planet scale) would be greater than inwards FTEP flow. Inwards flow will eventually catch up. Based on Phys.org article that catching up might take as long as couple of months. During that time particles bound to Earth experience a situation where outwards flux consumes FTEPs around them and generate increased pressure on those particles' sides perpendicular to Earth's center of mass which is detected by sensitive $G$ measurements during those months. During those months inwards flux gets stronger and eventually the equilibrium is achieved and $G$ measurements converge towards its mean value.

In case of decreased Earth's spinning frequency things go reverse. There will be a temporary excess of FTEPs surrounding Earth's mass and also the pressure around the sides of particles perpendicular to Earth center of mass is decreased due to decreased Earth's spinning frequency. All this generates the illusion of the increased value for $G$ as described in previous blog post. Again, the equilibrium state between inwards and outwards fluxes will be achieved during the following months and $G$ settles down.

On top of $G$ measurements when Earth's spinning frequency increases or decreases I suggest that measurements should be done also when decrease happens a few months after the previous decrease (no increases in between).

# Variations of G

Retired JPL physicist John D Anderson is back! He has, with his colleagues/team, found the linkage between LOD (Length Of Day) and the measured values of gravitational constant $G$. LOD variations mean variations with the spinning frequency of Earth, ah, my first crush 😉 You better read the whole paper from IOPscience.

The conclusion is that smaller the Earth's spinning frequency greater the value of G. How is that possible? Or I should ask, how is that possible according to TOEBI? Because mainstream physics is pretty clueless about the question. There is no apparent reason why Earth's spinning frequency, caused by Earth originated reason, should affect conventional laboratory measurements of $G$. By using quantum mechanical based measurements results differ, why? At least free fall measurements won't suffer from the following mechanism.

So, let's see what TOEBI can offer... at this point, qualitative. Relevant background information can be found from my previous blog posts (Dark Side - Part I & The Mechanism). Why smaller spinning rate of Earth increases the value of $G$?  All the involved masses stay the same... first I thought that there would be changes with masses due to the possible changed FTE density caused by the decreased Earth's spinning rate.

Because the smaller Earth's spinning rate the amount of the ejected/deflected surrounding FTEPs is smaller. That indeed might change the FTE density (decrease) throughout Earth (in principle detectable phenomenon) but that's not affecting the $G$ measurements by itself. However, there is another effect due to the decreased FTEP ejection/deflection.

Spinning particles generate a denser local FTE around them which is shown to us as particle mass, greater amount of FTEPs around an elementary particle means a higher mass for it. In special conditions, generated by high energy particle collisions, elementary particle can temporarily hold larger amount of these FTEPs around itself, e.g. muon. Nevertheless, the shape of those local particle FTE "bubbles" without any interacting outside FTEPs would be totally spherical.

Gravitating object most certainly affects the FTE "bubble" shape of a particle, it generates higher FTE density on the particle's side facing it. This is all described in those linked previous blog posts. Those, because of Earth spinning, deflected FTEPs shape those particle FTE "bubbles" too! They might distribute to the gravitational interaction (on the short scale probably not, this requires whole new blog post) but on top that they generate higher FTE density/pressure on the "sides" perpendicular to the gravitating object. Now you probably realize the mechanism how reduced Earth's spinning rate affects the measured $G$ values...

...In case you didn't. Reduced FTE density/pressure (due to reduced Earth's spinning rate) on the particles sides perpendicular to the gravitating object allows larger amount of particle's FTEPs to spread on those sides (for a while! - new blog post is coming on the phenomenon). Now two macro world objects can share more of their FTEPs which causes the higher gravitational interaction between them, hence generate the illusion of the increased value for $G$.

Published paper opens whole new perspectives for TOEBI development.

Update (6/5/2015): Check out also Matthew Pitkin's paper about the paper.

# Dark Side - Part I

Dark matter has been heavily on the focus now that LHC is starting once again. Matt Strassler is putting up a nice collection of articles about it and how LHC might detect the mysterious matter. So I started to think about how TOEBI handles dark matter and, in future part II, dark energy.

According to TOEBI gravitational interaction is experienced through FTE, you can check up the mechanism from one of my previous post. In this post, I'm going to describe how the mechanism works in a greater scale and hence create the illusion of dark matter. From TOEBI's point of view, there is two separate phenomenon acting, gravitational interaction enhancement between stellar objects due to circular motion (orbiting) and stellar object rotation and in some cases (e.g. bullet clusters), FTE displacement.

Let's start with the gravitational interaction enhancement. When I started with TOEBI I erroneously thought that gravitational interaction is solely based on stellar object's rotation. But I learned that it's not! However, stellar object's rotation can distribute to gravitational interaction, just like two spinning particles interacts with each other. When we are talking about rotating stellar objects the spinning rates are way much smaller. Nevertheless, the size of interacting area of stellar objects (cross section) is way much larger.

The ratio of gravitational enhancement due to rotation and "normal" gravitational interaction between Sun and Earth would be

where $G_{Earth}=0.5*f_{Earth}^2\approx 6.7347*10^{-11}$, $A_{Earth}\approx 1.275*10^{14}$ and $A_{Sun}\approx 1.523*10^{18}$. $G_{Sun}$ is omitted due to its insignificancy. Units are omitted on purpose. So what we got? The ratio is approximately $1.65*10^{-23}$. We can safely say that the gravitational enhancement effect from stellar object's rotation is minuscule.

How about stellar object orbiting? The effect from orbiting to the object itself is obvious. In steady orbit, gravitational pull generated by the mechanism  (a.k.a. normal gravitational interaction) is in balance with the force generated by the displacement of incoming FTE. Because the trajectory bends constantly, the larger portion of the incoming FTE is directed to the side opposing the orbit's center. Higher the object's velocity and curvature larger portion of the incoming FTE(Ps) go (are deflected) to the "outer" side. In steady orbit, the amount of FTE at the "outer" side matches the FTE density difference generated by the larger gravitating object, e.g. our Sun.

So far so good. But what if we scale up to our solar system level and study the phenomenon described above? For example, we have our Sun and bunch of planets, dwarf (always funny) planets and asteroids... which are orbiting the center of our galaxy. However, Sun rules the mass of our solar system. Now we are approaching the interesting part. The amount of FTE(Ps) deflected by our solar system, or let's just say deflected by our Sun is massive and those FTEPs goes "out" most heavily in a plane. Actually that plane effect explains partially why rotating galaxies (or solar systems) are more or less discs or are forming into that shape. Can you see what's coming...?

Every star near the central bulb on a rotating galaxy distributes on this deflection of FTEPs, larger the orbit's radius higher the star's orbital velocity, hence higher the deflected FTEPs' velocity. Stars in a galaxy arms have even bigger orbital radius and they pass on those previously deflected FTEPs. However, based on observations, dark matter (= FTEPs) doesn't go on without any interactions. At some point, their velocity slows down and areas with higher FTE density emerge, higher the FTEPs' velocity larger the distance FTEPs can travel radially before they start to clump.

Higher FTE density means in practice that the stars on those galaxy arms experience higher gravitational interaction than they should based on purely the visible matter. Described phenomenon is behind the flat velocity curve on those those rotating galaxies.

I'll continue later.

# Taming The Rotation

What prevents the large scale proton annihilations in case of two solid blocks of hydrogen? Although a solid block of hydrogen might provide the needed support for keeping those spinning vectors in wanted orientation it also provides an environment which induces the rotation for those enclosed protons a.k.a. proton electrons. Such a rotation phenomenon ruins the chances for the accurate contact between two lattices put together.

What can be done about the rotation? Obviously it must be tamed, but how? This needs further research.