Aah... It's a spring time again! What's more relaxing than putting one's garden ready for the upcoming summer? I can hardly wait those lazy days in my garden swing, reading and relaxing. I have frozen my book project for now, simply because I don't have enough time for it. Pushing my antimatter research collaboration ahead consumes all of my available spare time.
It's kind of weird feeling to know something totally new and exciting about our universe, something which hasn't been discovered yet by majority of people. Also the resistance against my ideas from the representatives of mainstream physicists is amusing Skillful idiots! I'll have another thing coming for you
And now... I'm having my five day Easter holiday. Have fun!
What other things we have to consider? Well, perhaps precise alignment of those two lattices, how fast those lattices must be put together and taking care that there won't be any acceleration involved at certain time interval before the contact. All those things need in-depth research so I won't ponder them too much at this point. However, in best case, only steady motion might be required.
Blocks of solid hydrogen put together
What will happen at the impact? Obviously many, if not all, of those protons on the contact surfaces will annihilate immediately. Every pair of annihilating protons create three new mesons, which fly away from the annihilation point. Hydrogen atoms at the background have also the prefered orientation. High energy collisions between new mesons and remaining hydrogen atoms with the prefered orientation results new proton breakdowns.
First in line protons annihilate
Described chain reaction generates wanted bomb like behaviour. Blog posts in this series have pretty much described our collaboration team's future experiments. There might be few engineering issues a head, like the potential need for very precise alignment, achieving non-accelerated motion etc. Interesting to see how things play out!
Let's imagine that we have two (ideal) monolayers of hydrogen in vertical position. In reality, it might be impossible to get hcp structure with one layer of hydrogen atoms, but that's not a dealbreaker. We can either use more hydrogen atom layers (more energy will be released too!) or we can use emerged fcc structure. What factors we must take into consideration in order to be successful? The initial requirement is that introduced protons must have anti-parallel spins (anti-parallel spin vectors in ToEbi terms) and they must contact with their spin axes head-on.
FTEP flux from protons keep the protons on a same layer in a required alignment. But before we put those (mono)layers together we have to manipulate them separately with magnetic fields to make sure that they have that required spin pattern (see picture). After that, we have annihilation enabling setup ready to go! But we won't go just yet, we have few other things to consider.
What kind of setup we are looking for in order to create simultaneous multiple proton annihilations? Well, there will be many variations for sure, each depending on its intended use. The simplest and safest setup would be two monolayers of solid hydrogen put together. At this point, we have to remember how protons behave under the influence of gravitating source and what is the consequence from the behaviour to our experiments.
Diatomic parahydrogen molecule (excluding bonding electrons)
Proton is made of three plain vanilla electrons which interact with each other and which create an equilateral triangle. Let's denote our protons in diatomic parahydrogen molecule as in picture below.
Due to a flux from gravitating object (e.g. Earth), protons tend to "stand" on two bottom electrons. If we push proton the generated imbalance is experienced as an inertia and eventually proton gains back that previous balanced orientation related to the gravitating object. If all this comes as a news to you then you better read first ToEbi paper or sample from the book. So, how all this affects our experiments? Well, obviously if we have two monolayers of hydrogen and we put one on top of another, annihilations won't happen. What we are trying to do, is to put those layers together so that we, at least, have a chance to get those protons together with their spin axis poles head-on! In other words, those monolayers of solid hydrogen should be put together when they are in vertical position.
Ok then, how we'll manage to get those layers together so that we have protons with anti-parallel spins next to each other and they won't change their orientation? That will be the tricky part and it deserves its own blog post...
So far, my focus has been on a bomb-like behaviour created by simultaneous proton annihilations, but before going too far ahead of our basic understanding of proton annihilations it's advisable to do some fundamental research with the phenomenon. In my earlier blog post I described our collaboration team's future annihilation experiment with electrons. Same underlying method is used with both electron and proton annihilations. One can consider that future electron annihilation experiment as a proof of concept before investing more time and money on proton annihilation experiments.
In proton annihilation experiment, we need a proton beam, spin filter(s) and a proper target. The idea is to smash protons together with their spin axis poles (ToEbi defined) head-on, naturally with anti-parallel spins. Selected spin-axis is the line of proton beam, for example protons in a beam have spin up and target protons have spin down. Used proton beam energy should be low enough in order to avoid interpretation problems of the cause of annihilations.
Described proton annihilation experiment or a variation of it will be the next step for our collaboration team.
Large amount of diatomic hydrogen molecules () is a very potential material for our purposes. The absolute best feature is that under about 14 K it's solid and that the most diatomic hydrogen molecules, under that temperature, have the arrangement where protons have anti-parallel spin vectors (and spins in contemporary particle physics).
Diatomic Hydrogen Molecule (excluding bonding electrons)
So, what's so darn exciting? First of all, we are able to manipulate those spin vectors with magnetic fields. Secondly, if we put two identically organized (but non-parallel spin vectors) solid hydrogen pieces together, there won't be just two proton annihilations, there will be a lots of them! Naturally there is few techniques needed in order to achieve this, but more on those later.
Let's say that we have two monolayers of solid hydrogen, 1 cm per piece, so both of them contain kg of hydrogen. With a proper technique, we are capable of extracting through proton annihilation TNT energy equivalent of 0.114 kg. That doesn't sound much, but you should realize that gained amount of energy came from two tiny monolayers of solid hydrogen. I have been quite close to exploding 0.1 kg of TNT (during my military service) and it was a pretty impressive blast!
Let's say that we have two 1 cm cubes of solid hydrogen. If we managed to extract all proton annihilation energy from them it would yield as much as TNT energy equivalent of 3.7 kT. In comparison, Little Boy yielded 16 kT.
What really happens when proton annihilates? Based on contemporary particle physics whenever proton and antiproton contact they annihilate each other. Based on ToEbi that annihilation event doesn't need any "antiprotons", in reality, antiprotons are normal protons. If this comes as a news to you then you should read my papers at first.
Let's see the picture below... On left we have two protons at rest side-by-side with anti-parallel spin vectors, which also means anti-parallel spins in contemporary particle physics terms. I will explain in future blog post how this setup can be achieved. When these protons contact the outcome is obvious, the incident (nucleus) electrons change their spin vectors orientations and we get three new mesons flying away from the annihilation point. In normal circumstances, those protons would change their spin vector orientations much earlier and that would prevent them from annihilation, also remember that those spin axis poles are the weak spot with spinning particles.
Two free electrons annihilate quite differently because there is much less FTEPs between them, so annihilating electrons "touch" each other. Due to that "touch", electrons lose their cross section down to photons' cross section (= mass).
So, how can we create the circumstances where those protons have anti-parallel spin vectors and they meet with their spin axis poles head-on all the way down to annihilation event? I'll tell that in my next post.
This blog post is the first in a serie covering an antimatter bomb. Word bomb has a very negative spin on it, but we have to remember that bomb-like behaviour is extremely usable in many situations beneficial to us. Perhaps the most beneficial in a case where we have to tackle incoming, potentially devastating, asteroid. Conventional nuclear weapons can't do the trick, but antimatter based bomb can! If we ever (and statistically we will) have to deal with such a situation we better pursuit this new weapons type.
Many people have asked me if it's possible to build an antimatter bomb. To be honest with you, building such a device is possible and it's relatively easy task. You don't need to collect and enrich some scarce element like uranium-235 or re-process nuclear waste in order to get weapons-grade plutonium, and those actions need a considerable amount of time, money, engineering skills and people (a.k.a. hard to accomplish in secrecy).
What are the requirements for building an antimatter bomb? Antimatter bomb (based on ToEbi) doesn't need scarce materials at all, plain vanilla hydrogen atoms will do just fine. So, the absolutely biggest obstacle is avoided. Even high school student is capable of generating and collecting hydrogen, at least in gaseous form. Warning! Do not play around with hydrogen gas, it most likely blows up your ass!
Ok then, we have the needed material, what else? Naturally we have to enable annihilation events. You should check for starter my previous blog post, which describes the basic principles (with electrons). I'll continue on that later on...
Antimatter technology derived from ToEbi will be adopted by the great nation of North Korea. The leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un and me had a meeting on the surface of Sun early this morning. We shook hands on the matter after enjoying ice skating performance made by 124 trained polar bears. That was something! Imagine, ice skating polar bears on the surface of Sun. Nice job Kim
Project Lady Manhattan starts immediately and aims to world domination by the great nation of North Korea. My job is to lead the project. I was kind enough and took the job with few conditions, at first, North Korea changes its name to ToEbi. Secondly, no animals should be hurt anymore, including human beings and those poor polar bears. O'boy, those bears were sweating big time!
Have a nice April fools' day!
Country (or countries) who adopts first the ToEbi predicted antimatter phenomena and technology has a HUGE advantage over the other countries in every way. It will be very entertaining to see how events emerge in future. Key roles are possessed by U.S., China, India, Ukraine, Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia. I'm currently collaborating with physicists from Saudi Arabia, so that country is definitely among the front runners.
Some serious interest is coming also (for some reason) from Ukraine, Iran and Israel. I can understand Iran and Israel, but Ukraine? I'm clueless on that one. Well, what ever the reason is... good for you Ukraine!
China and U.S. generate a lots of scientific traffic to this site, general blog readers as well as paper downloads. By scientific traffic I mean traffic originated from universities, labs (like Fermilab) and high tech companies. Certainly there is something cooking under the surface... When we will hear about the outcomes? Good question... From my behalf everything will be ready during this year. Ok, I can't predict how long it takes to get our results published, but it shouldn't take too long (scientific letter).
We are living in extremely exciting era in physics! I better make some popcorn, sit back, put my feet up and watch the show, at least when it hits the fan One more thing... China and Saudi Arabia are the leaders at the moment!